Printing is the process of using a light sensitive substance (emulsion) to create an image. It can be done directly or indirectly. Indirect techniques involve the use of recessed areas and wells to create the image. Some common methods include intaglio, planographic, screen, flexography, and letterpress.
Intaglio is a method of printing that has etched or engraved areas on a plane surface. It also has non-printing areas that are visible below the surface of the paper. This technique is often used for reproduction of a photograph, but can also be used for text or a design. Intaglio is classified according to the type of image carrier, which may be a metal plate, a flat, or a film.
Intaglio is one of the most common printing processes. The main difference between the techniques is the method of transferring the image. For example, in gravure printing, the image is created by small depressions in a printing plate. It is then transferred to the paper or substrate by direct or indirect means.
Intaglio is also known as relief because it has a non-printing area under the surface. It is usually done by heating a die that is designed to press the pattern onto the paper.
The most commonly used ink colors are black, cyan, magenta, and yellow. These colors are mixed together to form other colors. Carbon black is a pigment made from carbon. It is often added to varnishes to make them glossy. Amberlith is a red-orange acetate that prints clear on film.
A number of different types of paper are used in printing. Some common papers are leaf, card stock, and coated papers. They all have different properties and are used for a variety of applications. The properties of the paper determine the folding and unfolding characteristics. The grain of the paper is a factor in these properties. The grain direction affects the size of the finished product, and changes with relative humidity.
A printing press is a device that presses a sheet of paper into a printing plate. The paper goes through rollers and a dampening system. The dampening is essential to the process. It helps keep the paper moving through the press, which reduces spoiled or damaged paper.
The press is a tool that allows the process to be fully automated. It can feed sheets automatically and can also handle larger sheets than other machines. This allows for more flexibility in the final product, as it can be printed on a variety of paper sizes.
Intaglio printing uses a metal plate that is heated. It is a relief, meaning that it has a non-printing area below the surface of the plate. It is sometimes used for engraving, which creates a three-dimensional impression. A number of different inks are used in intaglio printing, including lithography, chromography, and electrophotography.
There are five major printing processes. Each is distinguished by the way it transfers the image to the paper. These include offset, gravure, intaglio, planographic, and lithography. Each of these processes is divided into specific steps, and each requires a different type of image carrier.