Printing is the process of producing texts and images, usually with ink on paper. This may be carried out as a large-scale industrial process, or more often in a small-scale way for the purposes of a publication or transaction.

Printed works can be made from many different materials, such as wood, metal, linoleum, and other surfaces, using a variety of printing techniques. These include engraving, intaglio printing, offset printing, screen printing, and digital printing.

Engraving is an image printing technique, in which a design is cut into a copper plate, which is then passed through a printing press. The plate is then wiped clean to remove all the ink, and a sheet of dampened paper is passed over the plate. This produces a mirror image of the original design on the plate.

Intaglio printing is an image printing technique, in which engraved lines are drawn onto a copper or steel plate, which is then passed through a press under pressure. A sheet of dampened paper is then pressed over the plate, causing the ink to be transferred to the paper. This is the most common method of producing an image.

A typewriter is a machine that uses a ball-bearing mechanism to draw letters on a piece of paper or other flat surface, such as a glass plate. The paper is then positioned on a movable type, and the machine prints the letters.

Movable type was invented in the 15th century by a German printer named Johann Gutenberg. It is regarded as a major breakthrough in the history of printing because it was possible to make books that could be easily copied and distributed, a revolution in communication that opened up new ways for people to communicate with each other.

The introduction of movable type was not well received in Europe at first. It was seen as a threat to the cherished handwritten manuscripts that were still a very popular form of communication. Moreover, some nobles were concerned that the rise of print would be a corrosive influence on their precious manuscripts, and thus they refused to allow printed works in their libraries.

By the time of the Renaissance, however, printing had been established in Europe. It was widely used for religious and educational texts, as well as in the arts.

It also changed the way people read. It enabled people to read more freely and creatively, as they were no longer constrained by the timetable of a book or by the limitations of handwriting. It also allowed people to read texts in much greater detail than previously possible, and to interpret them in a more creative way.

In modern times, print has become increasingly important as an artistic medium. It is also now a highly commercialized business, and the majority of art publications are printed using a combination of different printing techniques.